Historic, archived document Do not assume content reflects current scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. CROP£ AND MARKETS VOLUME 59 NUMBER 2 Y 1 ALMOND PRODUCTION (Medit. Basin) (Page 24) DAIRY PRODUCTS (World Output) (Page 28) CONTENTS Page COTTON AND OTHER FIBER Italian Cotton Mills Reducing Operations 38 Cotton-Price Quotations on Foreign Markets 40 FATS AND OILS ^ U. S. Exports of Specified rats, oils and Oilseeds • ^3 Italian Oilseed Production Down 33 Uruguay Harvests Record Sunflower, FOR RELEASE Peanut Cro * 5 34 FRUITS , VEGETABLES AND NUTS MONDAY 1949 Mediterranean Basin Almond Produc- MUNUAT tion Again Below Average JULY II. 19^9 LIVESTOCK AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS UULI rij Wor td Output of Dairy Products, First Quarter 1949 28 TOBACCO New Zealand Tobacco Production and Consumption at Record Level ......... 3b Southern Rhodesia's Tobacco Production and Exports Treble Prewar 35 TROPICAL PRODUCTS Angola's 1948 Coffee Exports at Record ^ Mozambique's' Tea Production and Exports ^ Larger UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL RELATIONS WASHINGTON 25, D.C. 23 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 59, No. 2 LATE IT E W 3 The first estimate of apple production in Canada for 1949 is placed at 16.6 million bushels, or 27 percent higher than the I94C crop of I3.3 million bushels. Production in Nova Scotia, indicated at a ,5 million bushels, and British Columbia at 7*5 million compare with 2,2 and 7»2 million in 1948 respectively. Sweden abolis hei. rat i oning o f meats in ret ail sh ops on June 20. Moat served in restaurants, however, had been free of rationing restrictions for come time. Increased supplies made it possible to remove c ont ro 1 s • It is reported that the Netherlands de-rationed butter, margarine, fat and edible oils June 2h» Edible fats and oils had been rationed in that country for almost 9 years since July 1940. The Uruguayan meat export quota for 1949 k- as been set at 198 million pounds j representing an increase of 55 million pounds over the amount fixed in March this year. Increased numbers of livestock (bid good pasture conditions have made this increase possible. (Continued on Page 41) FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS Published weekly to inform producers, processors, distributors and consumers of farm products of current developments abroad in the crop and livestock industries, foreign trends in prices and consumption of farm products, and world agricultural trade. Circulation of this periodical is free to those needing the information it contains for dissemination and olher related activities. Issued by the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. July 11. 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets loJ+9 MEDITEKRAJIEAN BASEST ALMOND PRODUCTION AGAIN BELOW AVERAGE l/ The 19^9 preliminary forecast of shelled almond production in the 6 leading foreign commercial producing countries is 57; 500 short tons compared with 54,700 tons (revised) in 19^8 ana 77,500 tons in 19^7- The forecast is 18 percent he low the 5 -year (19^3-%) average of 70,500 tons and 15 percent below the 10 -year (193$ -^7), average of '67,600 tons. Italy , the world's largest producer of shelled almonds, again has a very poor crop in the- making. The production in France and French Morocco, "both minor producers, is also expected to he "below that of 19^8. In Spain, present indications point to a crop slightly above average hut weather damage in the important Alicante district raises some doubt whether the forecast will stand when harvest commences in August, The United States est imate is not yet available, but according to trade sources, it is expected to be one of the largest on record. Growing conditions in this group of countries :have been far from uniform this season. The best growing conditions are reported from Iran and Portugal where larger crops than last year's are now expected. In France, French Morocco, and the Valencia (Alicante) district of Spain there was considerable weather damage during blossoming. In Spain, all other districts report conditions having been from- good to ideal. Italy reports the poorest growing conditions. The, unseasonable snow and cold weather in the first Week of March during blossoming is reported to have ruined half or more of the Sicilian or op and a smaller but undetermined percentage in Bari. ' It is estimated about 23,400 short ton3 of 19^8 almonds remain un- sold as the 19W3-49 season closes, Italy is reported to have an estimated 11,500 short tons; Spain 11,000 tons, and. Portugal 600 tons. The .carry- over represents k-3 percent of the estimated 19^8 production. At the same time last year the carry-over from the 19^7 crop was extimated at 32,000 tons (revised). At the close of the 1947-1+3 marketing season Italy alone had a carry-over about equal to the present carry-over for all 6 countries. On 'basis of present information the Mediterranean supply of .almonds for the 19^9-50 marketing year will be 80, 900 short tons compared with 86,700 tons at the start of the 1948-^9 season. The carry-over in Italy ar.d Spain is still largely in the hands of growers. In Portugal and other minor .producing countries the small carry-over is in the hands of the trade.. The season now closing from the export point of view was still a long ways from a normal prewar year. The official export statistics for these countries are still not available. On the basis of trade estimates about 36,000 short tons of shelled nuts appear to have found their way into international trade channels. Italy was the principal supplier, having provided an estimated 20,000 short tons, and Spain was second with an estimated 10,000 tons, l/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. 25 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 59, Ho. | ALMONDS, SHELLED: Estimated commercial production in specified countries, 19^9 with comparisons (Rounded to nearest 100 short tons) United Year : France French Morocco : Iran : Italy 1 Portugal : Spain Foreign total : States 1 tunshelled : Short tons Short tons ; Short : tons - Short tons Short tons Short tons Short tons Short 1 tons Average 191*3.47 1938-47 800 700 1,700 2,200 : 6, 500 7,100 34,800 30,800 : 2,200 2, 600 24,500 2l+,200 70,500 67, 600 27,100 21,40(M Annual 1938 1939 1940 191*1 1942 1943 1944 191+5 19^6 19^7 500 200 800 700 800 600 1,000 500 700 1,000 3,100 i+,900 2,200 1 600 1,600 1,100 600 3,300 2,1+00 1,200 : 11,000 : 8,800 8,800 1+ 1+00 . 5^300 7,000 5,300 6,600 7,700 6,000 1+1+, 000 15,000 28, 600 ll+, 500 21, 1+0.0 22, 700 50,600 33,000 46,200 3,500 : 7, 000 2,200 200 2,000 2,100 1,700 2,300 3,700 1,100 2l+, 000 20,000 2k, 700 2l+, 200 27,000 29,000 20,900 26,1+00 24,200 22,000 86, 100 55,900 67,300 6? 000 51,200 61,200 52,200 89, 700 71,700 77,500 15,00« 21,60(8 12,00J| 6 000 I 23' 800 1 17,5001 24, ood| 27,200 1 37,80<| 29,200 1948 1/ : 191+9 1/ ■ 1,100; 300 : 3,300 2,200 7,700 8,200 18,700 18, 000 2, 900 3,500 2/21,000' 25,300, 2/54,700 57,500 29,6(X 3/1 1/ Preliminary. 2/ Revised. 3/ California estimate not yet available. June 1 percentage of full crop was 74$ compared with 60$ a year ago. Trade sources indicate a record or near record crop may he expected. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. Prepared or estimated on the basis of official statistics of foreign governments, reports of U.S. Foreign Service off iced results of office research, and other information. July 11, l$k? Foreign. Crops and Markets 26 The principal European buyers of almonds were the United Kingdom, France, Belgium/ and the 'Scandinavian countries. India was a good market during' most of the " season. United States foreign purchases during the season probably will fall below that of 19^7-48 when 6,135 tons of shelled almonds were imported for consumption. .United States imports for consumption to the end of April 19^9 totalled ^,6ll tons and May declared exports were only 30 tons. Italy was the principal supplier of shelled almonds to the United States as has been the case since the 19^6-Vf season. United States importers have been . out of the Spanish .market since last fall when countervailing duties were levied on Spanish almonds. United States imports for the past 2 years have been largely small bar size and specialty almonds. The outlook for the 19^9-50 marketing season in the Mediter- ranean countries is a little obscure at this time. While in some exporting countries a certain amount of early season optimism pre- vails for the new season, there are still some major obstacles to a return to a normal prewar export movement. Germany, traditional- ly Europe's major consumer of almonds, is still out of the market. A small start has been made to revive this trade, primarily due to the efforts of energetic Italian exporters. If this market were open, half of the visible Italian 19^9-50 supply would be taken by Germany, thereby reducing the selling pressure in all of the pro- ducing countries. The various trade agreements put into operation or presently being negotiated by European countries are expected to facilitate the export movement' of almonds and other nuts in that part of the world. The British Government action placing Mediterranean nuts on open general license has been a boon to countries having diffi- culty moving exportable surpluses. This is expected to be a big help during the new season. On the other side of this picture early season reports indicate that a very large Turkish filbert crop is expected with a price structure that should be very attractive to financially weak European countries and bargain-hunting buyers in other parts of the world. The early season estimates from trade sources in the United States indicate record or near -record crops of almonds, filberts, and walnuts. There is a slowing down of consumers' purchases, according to the trade. On the basis of the indicated supply of United States grown nuts, it appears that United States imports of the types grown in this country during the 19^9-50 season will be smaller than during the season now closing. 27 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 59, No. 2 UNITED STATES: Imports for consumption of shelled and unshelled almonds, from specified countries, 194748, with comparisons. Season, September through August Year French Morocco Italy Portugal Spain Other countries Total Short Short Short Short Short Short tons • tons tons tons tons tons Shelled: Average : lQk3/kk - 19^7 A 8 1938/39 - 1947A8 21 16 1,5^8 870 692 497 ^,977 2,577 52 172 : 7,290 ^,132 Annual : 1943-44 191+ 445 1945-46 194647 1947-48 194849 1/ 0 15 28 34 27 0 0 0 1,503 2,054 4,179 4,172 - 1,271 1,218 688 187 98 137 6,930 8,061 7,l4o 950 1,805 255 53 31 73 76 26 1+7 8,254 9,325 9,437 3,301 6,135 4,611 Unshelled Average : 1943/44 - l9>+7 A8 1933/39 - 19^7A8 0 0 3 2 5 3 201 100 2 1 211 106 Annual : I94I- 4.5 1914.5-1+6 191+647 ' 191+7 -.1+3 191+849 1/ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 9 • 1 14 11 0 0 0 0 425 170 263 145 0 0 0 0 5 6 2/ 1 439 181 268 157 i a l/3 months, September through April, 19^9. 2/ Less than one -half ton. Compiled from official records of the Bureau of the Census. June 11, 19^9 Foreign Crops and Market: 28 WORLD OUTPUT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS, FIRST QUARTER 19^9 Production of manufactured dairy products in most of the major producing countries in the first quarter of 19^9 was veil above that for the same quarter a year earlier and thus continues the upward swing "begun in the last quarter of 19^8. The larger output of dairy products reflects the increase of milk production which occurred during the same period, most of which "was diverted to manufacturing uses. As a result, cheese, dried milk and "butter production increased 26, 20 and 1'+ per- cent, respectively, while evaporated and condensed milk was the only product that dropped "below the first quarter production of 19^8. The increase in production is attributed to a much improved feed situation and in some instances to an increase in the number of milk cows in many of the principal milk producing countries. Larger supplies of milk in many countries made it possible to relax or remove restrictions on utilization, permitting freer diversion of milk to those products which would bring the greatest monetary return. Although milk cow numbers in Canada and the United States decreased, the production of milk and dairy products increased because of the favorable domestic feed situation. Australian and New Zealand production also reflected improved pasture for dairy herds, but production in the union of South Africa is somewhat lower than normal, owing to the dry weather early in the year. In Europe, however, the increase in numbers and the larger quantity of indigenous and imported feed supplies have materially increased production in most of the dairy products. Substantial increases in butter production occurred in the major producing or reporting countries, with the exception of Switzerland and the Union of South Africa. Butter production in Switzerland, decreased 15 percent as a result of a bonus being paid for milk used in processing cheese. In the Union of South Africa the butter output reflected the general decrease in milk production. Output of butter in Denmark was 21 percent larger than a year ago, reflecting an improvement in milk production which occurred in the first 3 months of this year. In the Netherlands, an increase of 52 percent in milk deliveries to plants resulted in a 26 percent rise in the amount of butter produced in the same period. The butter production in Ireland, in the January -March quarter, was 52 percent above that of 19^8. This permitted a sizable increase in the domestic rations, and provided larger quantities for export. The output of milk in the United Kingdom during the first quarter of 19^9 wa.s considerably greater than that of a year earlier. The increase in production provided sufficient amounts of fluid milk for unrationed market demands, and permitted an increase in butter production well above that of 19^8. Last year smaller amounts of milk were used in fluid form because of ration restrictions. 5? sif si as HH H Hri H H i-lrH CM r-( CM iH.iH as. a. a* CM J- J± CT\iH r- cm r-l rH CM r— pj 3& 3 CZ) U>UD ^ 60 CM IT> CT\ K\ O ih >jd j-* 1 cm 1 o\rio"- 1 j-" wj ' crl i-» CVj CM 60 lf\ HCVliH »^ 60 'oil ^1 &£#&h jps a CM ir»r-l ^t" O M i-I^ CTiOS <2> W>lf\ -HMD CM tO tfNOV£> O IfV* <M K\ nMneo 60 ir\ 60 *cm| oj| CM Q !*"\VO MVO t— r"-\t— t*-LTl.=)- CT\0.d- r<-\©\p CM Q> CTv rH CM p r— 60 f—v£> 60 1 CM 60 CM CM UT»Crt60 CM O ojIcm! ^ ^ ^m) cm1 cul 05 h60 r- into IT; ^t^fVOI^t^ 1 l^in HOW 60 j£ ' Q 60 r-tCOU3 O ir\ CTir^r-f jrf-uS o cm cm cm cm h h k\ "cmIcm!^ *cm1 ~cm[ 'cuVcvfe "cmTcmI ^m1 VO60 ^tArH r^i-T 60 mCM r-4j± rH HO O i-4 t*S3- CM r-l H ^"cmIcvJI ^1 "cmI !l if O CTl « O If H P, ll cr\60 r-t CM H r^> 588§S§8R£8*E&Sie CT\J- p60 60.CTNt— CT>CriQfOir>i-l CM IT\ VD CM 60 O ITN ITvO CM INOWHHNH t^6o r^»rovocr»r» h o> r- o cr> rH 4 CO KMTiCM HH S1I 3 a s r-3 5 & ^3 : i 8 : : : jo Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 59, No. 2 Largely as a result of the recovery from unfavorable producing conditions in the principal dairy areas in Australia, during the opening months of the current year, butter production in that country was main- tained at a level comparable to 1948. In New Zealand, pastures were good throughout the quarter under consideration and butter -gradings for export increased 17 percent. This was partly due to continued butter rationing needed to maintain current exports at a high level. Canadian milk production in the first quarter of 1949 showed little change from that of a year ago, but butter output in the same quarter was approximately 6 percent larger. During this same period 11 million pounds of margarine were produced compared to none a year earlier. In the United States an increase of 20 percent in the production of butter is attributed to larger milk production and a lessening of the demand for whole milk especially by condenser ies. Cheese production in the first quarter of 1949 showed the largest increase of any manufactured dairy product. In Switzerland the output of cheese, in this period, was 21 percent above that of a year ago. This 3a?:n was achieved at the expense of butter production in anticipation of re -entrance by the Swiss into some of their prewar export markets. Larger quantities of cheese were manufactured in Denmark and the Netherlands, as conditions for production in both countries were much more favorable in the initial quarter of the current year than in the same quarter of 1948. This continues the general upward trend in Danish cheese output for the fifth consecutive year. Cheese output in the United Kingdom also showed a marked rise in this period. The Australian cheese output showed an increase of 8 percent in the first quarter of 1949 over the first quarter of the preceding year. This was due primarily to the increased milk production in March when the output was larger than that of any corresponding month in recent years. While data for total cheese manufactured in New Zealand are not available, it is indicated that production will be well above 1948. Cheese -gradings for export in the first 3 months of 1949 was 12 percent larger than in the correspond- ing period a year ago. Production of cheese in the United States, for January through March, was approximately 22 percent larger than in the same period of 1948 and was the largest ever attained for that quarter. Canadian cheese production declined 26 percent as a result of larger quantities of milk being diverted to other uses, particularly to butter. However, cheese production is expected to increase and probably attain a higher level than last year, Evaporated and con dense d milk was the only manufactured dairy product whose output declined during the first quarter of 1949. While Canada, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands increased their manufacture of these products in this quarter, their output is small compared with the United States where production wa3 14 percent below July 11, 19^9 Foreign Crops and Market 32 that of 19^3. This decrease occurred in evaporated milk which is processed on a much larger scale than condensed milk. In the first quarter of evaporated milk production in this country dropped about 17 percent "below the same quarter of last year. The production of evaporated and condensed milk in Australia, the only other country report- ing, was down 20 percent in the first 3 months of 19^9 as compared with the corresponding 3 months of 19^8. Dried milk production in the first quarter of 19 } +9 showed an increase over the corresponding period of 19^3. Both the United States and Canada, two of the major producers of dried milk products, experienced a decrease in the production of dried whole milk, but substantially accelerated the output of dry non-fat milk. The net increase in dried milk products for these countries was 32 percent and hi percent, respectively, in the first quarter of 19^9 compared with January -March, 19^8. The United States production increase in dry non-fat milk of ho per- cent is largely the result of increased milk production, diversion of milk from evaporated and dried whole milk to butter production combined with continued Government purchases for export and price support. The Netherlands and Australia were the only other countries to show an in- crease in production of dried milk in the first quarter of 19^9. Output in the United Kingdom, on the other hand, was only ^7 percent of a year ago. ' Current Conditions Abroad Canada: Livestock came through the winter in good condition. Pasture growth is good. Fanners are well supplied with feeds. Cuba ; In May, seasonal rainfall over most of the Island improved pastures rapidly, causing a marked increase in milk production, and giving impetus to the output of canned milk and other dairy products. Irelan d; Weather and pasture conditions are favorable. Dairy out- put shows improvement. United Kingdom ; Conditions for milk production continue favorable. Pastures have developed as a result of the mild weather and supplies of fodder and other feeds are adequate. The Netherlands ; Dairy cattle came through the comparatively mild winter in excellent condition. Feeds are plentiful. Denmark ; Warm weather and ample rainfall in May provided good grow- ing conditions. Pastures are excellent. France ; Dairy production, aided by timely spring rains which have eased the threat of drought, has been increasing seasonally. Since the middle of May, production of dairy products has been adequate to meet practically all current domestic requirements. (Continued on Page hi) 33 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 59, No. 2 COMMODITY DEVELOPMENTS FATS AND OILS V~. 3. EXPORTS OF SPECIFIED FATS, OILS, AND OILSEEDS The following table shows United States exports of specified fats, oils, and oilseeds during January-May 1949 with comparisons: UNITED STATES: Exports of specified fats, oils, and oilseeds, January-May 1949 with comparisons Commodity Unit Average : 1947 ' 1948 1/ January -May 1948 1/ 1949 1/ Soybeans . . , •I 000 bu 2/ 4,793 2,505 6,497 2,100 12,597 Soybean oil Refined •1, UUU IDS. 3/6,467 38,883 41,266 22,866 91 550 Crude , , 68,395 41,769 84 QQ? o*+, yjc Coconut oil » ii Refined ii 3,789 : 5,491 9,273 6,543 1,878 • it 10,442 : 52,427 9,820 5,953 3,365 Cottonseed oil Refined . . c ....... . ti Km 10,977 22,627 19,146 45,508 1,515 : 901 10, 094 2,176 18,602 •1. 000 bu. 3/ : 16 1,650 15 2,903 :1, 000 lbs. 1,280 : 9,855 29,636 14,352 2,455 Peanuts Shelled 3/[ 452 212.253 458,655 223,794 210,300 18,681 io,594 3,827 3,724 Peanut oil, refined. . 4/ 325 1,579 685 627 12, 082 2,111 165,636 3,594 3,522 271,835 1,404 2,107 380,735 133,290 287,527 180 19,954 3,^08 2,361 990 Tallow Edible 3/ ( ( l,65l 601 1,377 1,193 11,416 Inedible 54,553 67,995 13,039 158,044 l/ Preliminary^ 2/ Average of less than 5 years. 3/ Not separately classified in Foreign Commerce and Navigation. 4/ 1939 only. Compiled from official sources. ITALIAN OILSEED PRODUCTION DOWN Italy's 1949 oilseed production (exclusive of olives) may not exceed 50,000 short tons, compared with almost 66,000 in 1948 and the all-time peak of 75,000 reached in 1947. This is the result of acreage reductions which were in ac- cordance with Italy's long-term program for decreased oilseed production. July 11, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 34 ITALY: Oilseed production, I949 with comparisons Oilseed : Average 1935-39 19^7 igkQ 1949 1 / amort; tons > Short tons Short tons Short tons Rapeseed Peanuts Sunflower seed Seaaiao seed Soybeans , Castor beans Flaxseed Heap seed , Cobtonseod :2/ 2,133 ■£/ i,6U2 i27 25 2/ hhk 1/ 16 2/ 3,597 5,669 3,W 9,370 : 22,953 7,935 12,350 73* - k,k9k 4, 683 12,719 2,989 5,678 ! 23,469 7,166 8,062 478 3,201 3,213 13,220 2,714 4,370 16,535 4,409 6,614 551 3,307 3,307 2/ l/ Preliminary. 2/ Average of less than 2 years. 3/ Wot available. American Embassy, Rome. Oilseeds provide only a 3tnall proportion of the vegetable oils con- sumed in Italy, olives being by far the most important source. Seeds most commonly grown for oil are rapeseed, peanuts, sunflower seed, sesame seed, soybeans, and castor beans. In addition oilseeds are obtained from the flax, hemp and cotton fiber plants. Moreover, a variety of oiibearing ma- terials, which are grown principally for other purposes, are also pressed for oil whenever profitable. For example, there Is regular pressing of grape seed, corn, rice, tobacco seed, poppy seed, tomato seed, and nuts, particularly when the prices of the latter are low and oil prices are high. In Italy oilseed production and foreign trade are closely associated with olive oil production. As a direct consequence of the large olive crop in I947 and improved world availabilities, oilseed plantings were decreased in I94O. A very poor olive crop in 1948 and the decreased domestic oilseed production necessitated la.rge imports of oilseed3. In IQkd imports of oil- seeds totaled over 48,300 tons, nearly twice as much as in 1947 but only one -fourth of prewar. Imports have been an important factor this year in preventing substantial increases in prices of edible oils. As imports have mounted, prices have continued to decline. Exports of oilseeds have been negligible. URUGUAY HARVESTS RECORD SUNFLOWER , PEAIIUT CROPS Uruguay's 1949 sunflower and peanut crops are the largest on record, according to official figures ,Just released. Over 66,500 short tons of sunflower seed were harvested from 280,000 acres (planted), compared with 41,200 tons (revised) from 206,000 acres in I948 and 2,590 tons from 11,250 acres prewar . 35 Foreign. Crops and Markers •Vol.. 59, No. 2 Peanut production was almost 11,500 tons from 1+3,000 acres (planted) as against the revised figures of .10,600 tons and 34,400 acres a year ago and the prewar average of I,l80 tons and 4,740 acres. 'Notice was given June 14 by the Controller of Exports and Imports of tile opening of the export quota to the amount of 4,400 tons of peanut oil and/or ' sunflower seed oil, or the equivalent in seeds (up to 11,000 tons). • ; 1 TOBACCO NEW ZEALAND TOBACCO PRODUCTION AND . CONSUMPTION AT EEC'OPD LEVEL New Zealand's production of leaf tobacco and consumption of to- bacco products reached record levels in 1948, according to the American Embassy in "Wellington. Lmports of leaf, however, have declined somewhat in recent years. The country's 1948-49 leaf production, composed principally of flue-cured and light air -cured types, has "been forecast at 5,615,000 pounds from 4,406 acres, as compared with 4,771,000 pounds from 4,3ol acres in 1947-48 and an annual average of 3,668,000 pounds from 3,392 acres during the 5-year period, 1942-43 through 1946-47. The 1948-49 yield per acre of 1,274 pounds is 17 percent a"bovo the 1947-48 yield of 1,093 pounds and 18 percent above the 1942-43 through 1946-47 average of l,08l pounds per acre. Imports of leaf into New Zealand during 1948, totaled 4,346,000 pounds, as compared with 4,651,000 pounds in 1947 and a 1942-46 annual average of 5,024,000 pounds, Elue-curod leaf from the United States accounts for most of the country's unmanufactured tobacco imports. In 1948 exports of this type from the United States to Now Zealand totaled 3,327,000 pounds. Leaf released to manufacturers from bonded warehouses in 1943 totaled 8,306,000 pounds, composed of about 3,251,000 pounds of domestic leaf and 5,055,000 pounds pounds of imported loaf. This is the high- est rate of leaf consumption on record and is 4 percent greater than the 7,985,000 pounds released to manufacturers in 1947 and 44 percent above the 5,772,000 pounds released in 1946. Domestic loaf accounted for 39 percent of total consumption in 1948, as compared with 38 percent in 1947 and 49 percent in 1946. SOUTHERN RHODESIA'S TOBACCO PRODUCTION AMD EXPORTS TREBLE PREWAR Southern Rhodesia's 1948-49 production and 1948 oxports of leaf tobacco were more than treble the prewar level, according to the American Embassy in Pretoria. July 11, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 36 The country's 1948-40 tobacco crop is officially estimated at 78.8 million poxsnds from 136,220 acres, as compared with 77.9 million pounds from 119,971 acres in 1947-43 and the prewar, 1935-36 through 1939-^0, annual average of 26.1 million pounds from 51,447 acres. The 1948-49 yield per acre of 579 pounds was IT percent below the 1947-48 yield of 649 pounds 3 but 14 percent above the prewar, 1935-36 through 1939-^°, average of 507 pounds per acre. The decline in yield in 1948-49 was due primarily to a prolonged drought during the growing season. Flue -cured leaf accounted for 96 percent of the total production in 1943-49, as compared with 97 percent in 1947-48 and 94 percent in the 1935-36 through 1939-40 period. Production of this type in 1948-40 to- taled 75 -5 million pounds from 128,500 acres. In addition to flue-cured leaf, Southern K nodes ia in 1948-49, produced 2.5 million pounds of .Turkish and 800 thousand pounds of dark fire -cured leaf. Leaf exports in 1948 totaled 67.7 million pounds, as compared with 46.7 million pounds in 1947 and an annual average of I9.2 million pounds in the prewar, 1935-39, period. The United Kingdom took 44.2 million pounds, or 65 percent of Southern Rhodesia's total leaf exports in 1948. This compares with 28.1 million pounds, or 60 percent in 1947 and 15.3 million pounds, or 80 percent in tho 1935-39 period. Australia, the second most important outlet for Southern Rhodesia's leaf in 1948, took 6.4 million pounds, or 9 percent in 1-948, as compared with 3*1 million pounds, or 7 percent in 1947* Other countries taking substantial quan- tities of leaf in 1948 include the Union of South Africa, Egypt, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium and the United States. SOUTHERN RHODESIA: Exports of leaf tobacco, 1948 with comparisons Country cf Destination Average • 1935-39 1947 1948 1,000 ■ pounds 1,000 pounds 1,000 pounds United Kingdom Union of South Africa ' • Australia Netherlands Egypt United States Denmark Belgium Other Countries 15,273 2,497 1/ ' ' "35 • y 845 : 28,126" 4,906 3,081 873 3,256 1,716 453 740 3,506 44.162 1,793 6,377 2,174 5,021 923 2,497 310 4,4o4 Total 19 , 166 ; 46,657 67,661 l/ If any, included in "Other countries". Official and Consular Reports. 37 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 59, No. 2 Flue-cured exports in 19^8 totaled 6k. 0 million pounds, or 95 per- cent of the country's total leaf exports. This compares with *2.5 million pounds, or 91 percent in 19*7 and the prewar annual average of about I7.9 million pounds, or 9* percent. In addition to flue-cured leaf, Southern Rhodesia in 19*8, exported 3.2 million pounds of Turkish and about 400 thousand pounds of dark fire -cured leaf. TROPICAL PRODUCTS ANGOLA'S 19*8 COFFEE EXPORTS AT RECORD HIGH In 19*8, Angola's exports of coffee reached an all-time high of 890,000 hags, 15 percent above the previous peak of 775,000 hags in 19*6, and more than 3 times as large as the annual average prewar, 1935-39, exports of 268,000 hags, according to the American Consulate in Luanda. Angola exported 73^,000 hags of coffee in 19*7- The Netherlands was Angola's leading market, taking 219,000 hags of coffee in I9I+8. It was followed hy Portugal with 213,000 hags, the United States with 189,000 hags, and Belgium-Luxembourg with 115,000 hags. One noticeable feature in Angola's coffee trade was the increase in exports to Germany from about 130 bags in 19*7 to nearly 32,000 bags in 19*8. ANGOLA: Exports of green coffee in 19*8, with comparisons. Destination Average 1935-39 19*6 19*7 19*8 1/ 1,000 Belgium- Luxembourg ; 2/ Netherlands .■ : 26 Portugal : 190 United States : 29 Other ; 23 Total ; 268 1/ Preliminary. 2/ Not available. Included in Other, 1,000 26 96 139 360 15* 775 1,000 lk9 15* 136 21* 81 73* 1,000 bags 115 219 213 I89 15* Esjtatisticado Commercio Da Navegacao and U. S. Foreign Service reports. Angola's coffee plantations cover approximately 1,235,000 acres and are divided among kkk fazendas (farms) belonging to 331 different producers, These properties represent the greatest single investment of Portuguese and foreign capital in the Colony. It is estimated that about 125 million coffee trees are now planted in Angola. July 11, 19^9 Foreign Crops and Markets 38 Much credit for the development of coffee plantations in Angola is due to the efforts of the Junta de Exportacao do Cafe Colonial created in. 1939- This organization has made great progress in de- veloping CTiltivation through technical services to the planters, es- tablishment of experimental stations, improvement in internal and maritime transport, and construction of storage warehouses. Through rigid classification regulations issued early in 19^+5, the Junta has taken great pains to insure that the quality of exports meet required international standards. MOZAMBIQUE'S TEA PRODUCTION ANT) F.XF0RTS LARGER Mozambique's 19^9 tea production is now estimated at about k.k million pounds, an increase of 10 percent over the 19^-3 crop of slight- ly less than k million pounds, according to the American Consulate Gen- eral in Lourencc Marques . Exports of tea in 19^8 amounted to 3.3 million pounds, the high- est in the Colony's history, comparing with l.k million pounds in I9U7 and an annual average of 800 thousand pounds in the prewar period 1935- 39- Domestic consumption of tea in Mozambique is currently estimated at JOO thousand pounds annually. probably the most notable development in Mozambique's tea trade was the export of 2 million pounds of tea to the United States in 19^8. Thi3 is the first time that United States importers ever purchased a substantial quantity of tea from Mozambique. During the first *f months of 19^9, Mozambique producers shipped 1.9 million pounds of tea to the United States, and they expect to ship at least 500,000 thousand pounds more by the end of the year. The Union of South Africa and Portugal are the other important markets for Mozambique's tea exports. COTTON AND OTHER FIBER ITALIAN COTTON MILLS REDUCING OPERATIONS The Italian cotton industry is gradually reducing output of woven goods, due to declining sales and increasing inventories. This trend is expected to continue over the next 6 months. This situation was not reflected, however, in the April yarn production figures but the spin- ning mills can be expected to feel the decline in weaving fairly soon. Preliminary reports of the Ministry of Labor field offices indicate that many mills had started reducing operations in June. Trade sources are forecasting a level of activity in the cotton industry during the summer months significantly lower than in 191*7 and I9I+8 if the present situation continues . 39 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 59, No. 2 Yarn sales contracts in the domestic market have been 3teadily declining over the past few months. Sales contracts in April in the domestic market were reported to have de- clined to 3o percent of the January 19^9 level. Activity in the cotton-spinning industry has been maintained largely on the strength of the export market for yarns. Cotton yarn exports in l$k8 were 50 percent higher than in 1933, while exports of finished manufacturers were only one -third the prewar level. The drop in activity of the weaving section is particu- larly diie to the difficulty of selling woven textiles abroad. Competition is increasing and Italian producers are having increasing difficulties in meeting competitive, prices of other exporting countries. The Italians assert that increasing labor costs make it impossible to reduce prices. Also, ac- cording to a recent study prepared by the Ministry of Labor and Commerce, one of the chief problems of the cotton textile industry is the need for modernization of its plants in order to increase production efficiency and lower costs. Italy has lost many of its prewar markets. These in- cluded not only former colonial markets but also a number of other importers of Italian textiles that have increased do- mestic production of fabrics and can now fill most of their own needs. Many of these countries are buying more yarn to increase production in their own weaving establishments and importing less cloth* The loss of these markets is of extra- ordinary importance to the Italian cotton industry which in prewar years normally exported 35 to ^0 percent of its cotton' textile production. With unemployment, Italy is obliged to export as much labor value as is possible. In the textile industry, however, an increasing quantity of yarn is exported that requires much less labor to manufacture than cloth. If yarns continue to account for the larger share of textile exports, the industry necessarily will contribute le3s foreign exchange income to the Italian economy than in the past. July 11, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets COTTON-PRICE quotations ON FOREIGN MARKETS The following table shows certain cotton-price quotations on foreign markets converted at current rates of exchange. COTTON: Spot prices in certain foreign markets, and the U.S. gulf -port average Market location, kind, and quality ' Date ! 19^9 ; Unit of " weight ; Unit of | curi'ency . Price in : foreign : currency Equivalent :U.S. cents :per pound Alexandria rKantar Aabiaouni, Good : 7-7 : 99.05 lbs. ! » iTallari : 44.45 : 41.70 1 ^ not (not : 620.00 65c 00 : 37.07 : 34.78 :quoted) : 23.86 25.01 Ashmouni, F.G.F. ...... , .. Karnak, Good t Tfaynnlr Ti 1 CI TT ,, [ „ Bombay :Candy : 78^ lbs. : Rupee , ti Broach Fine tt Karachi ;Maund 4F Punjab, S.G,, Fine 7 6 • 82.28 lbs. „ 87.00 93.00 : 93.00 31.90 34.10 ' 34.10 289F Sind, S.G. , Fine t! 289F Punjab, S.G. , Fine .... Buenos Aires t! , 11 -Metric ton 7-7 2204.6 lbs. •Peso '1/4000.00 335.00 427.00 54.03 32,06 40.87 Lima 7 6 it Sp. quintal 101, k lbs. Sol Pima, Type 1 .............. ti Recife Arroba Mat a, Type k Sertao, Type ^ 7-7 11 33c 07 lbs. ti Cruzeiro . 200.00 180.00 32.90 29,61 Sao Paulo ; it ■ it 195.00 : 197.00 : 32.08 22,4-6 Torre on : Middling, 15/16" . , . : » Sp. quintal : 101 , h lbs. : Peso Houston -Galveston -New : Orleans av, Mid. 15/16" "ti- Pound : Cent ; XXXXX : 31.90 Quotations of foreign markets reported by cable fromU.S, Foreign Service posts abroad. U.S. quotations from designated spot markets. 1/ Nominal . Foreign'* Crop's and i,ferkets Vol. 59* No. 2' WORLD OUTPUT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS; (Continued from page 32) Switzerland ; Rainfall in April and May, after a dry early spring, resulted in a sharp revival of pasture growth. Australia: The outlook for dairy production is generally good. Dairy cattle are slightly more rumor cue. . and . fa.ee the winter in good condition, with feed available for at least several months* New Zealand; Agricultural conditions continue generally satisfactory* L A 3 N E 1 ( S (Continued from Pare 2J) It is reported that the Uruguayan commitments under the Eighth British Meat Contract have boon advised that future shipments will be at prices determined 'under the Ninth Contract to be negotiated. Further cubs in British. import s of United States farm products seem likely as result of a British Government "standstill" directive under which further purchases in the dollar area will be permitted enly where. a clear case of urgent national interest is established. Existing contracts and commitments for dollar purchases will remain in force. This action with respect to imports from the .United States, Canada and other dollar countries was announced in the House of Commons, July 6, by Sir Stafford Cripps, Britain's Chancellor of the Exchequer • He reported that dollar and gold reserves in. the sterling area had declined to $l,62l>, 000,000, a drop of $260,000,000 in 3 months. Formerly a reserve of $2,000,000,000 had been considered necessary., Cripps said that new import programs were being considered and _thvt these should be completed in September. "Unless the sterling area succeeds in restoring the volume of its sales to the dollar area," he said, "these restrictions upon dollar expenditures will have to be continued." The Chancellor did not indicate in Commons which specific agricultural products would be most great].;/ affected by the restriction of dollar purchases. July 11, 19^4-9 Foreign Crops and Markets l\2 The British Parliament has passed the Agricul tural Marketing Act of 1949* amending Acts of 1931 ®- n & The new Act has to do with membership of the Marketing 3oards and the authority of the Boards particularly with respect to buying, grading, packing, storage, pro- cessing, and sale, including prices, of agricultural commodities. Henceforth not less than two and not more than one-fifth of total membership of such boards shall be persons appointed by the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, the remainder being drawn from producers. If practices of a board result in limiting the quantity of products made available for the public's use or in regulating the price of products and the results are contrary to the public interest, the Minister may d?rect a board to take steps for the purpose of preventing or mitigating damage to the public interest, and it shall be the duty of the board to comply with his directions.